N. Murayama -B
Introduction to Shichiro MURAYAMA's Work
Origin of Ainu Language

ORIG: 98/04/
REV1: 98/09/05

"Origin of Ainu Language" was published in Japanese language from San-ichi Shobo in 1992.

Table of Contents/Brief Introduction
Contents in brief
discusses relationship between Ainu and Japanese languages.
presents 7 Ainu words to see relationship with Austronesian (AN) languages.
describes his approach to the Ainu - AN relationship problems.
talks about Ainu in Kamchatska peninsula.
reviews Ainu words collected in Shumshu (si-mosir) island (northern-most one among [now] Kuril islands, or Chishima Islands) by Dybowski during 1879 and 1883.
discusses that Cape "Lopatoka" is a translation of Ainu word into Russian word, both meaning "a shoulder bone". The shape of the cape is like a shoulder bone.
covers three topics about Ainu and Japanese languages, including tungsic numerals.
includes his writings (hand-out) in English.

In Chapter V, Murayama writes in bold letters that:

As above, it is a valid question in Murayama's eyes to inquire about extnsiveness of Ainu occupancy in old times.

He claims this is the first event to introduce Dybowski's information to Japanese academism. The Polish released the information 77 years before (of 1992), left unknown till this recent.

In this chapter, Ainu's yukar (practical meaning being "story") as collected by M. CHIRI is quoted.

The stories suggest that Ainu (people and language) propagated up northward, Murayama considers.

At this juncture, place names would better be mentioned. From Kamchatska peninsula, down southward; Kuril Region, Lake Kuril, Cape Lopatka; Shumshu (si mosir) Island (the first island), Poromushir (poro mosir) Island (the second island), Onne Kotan (island)........... Urup Island, Etorov Island, Kunasir Island, Si-kotan Island; then Hokkaido.

According to Murayama, "Kamchatska Geography" (1755 Petersburg) by Krasheninnikov (1711-1755) describes that there is almost no difference in language spoken in Kunasiri from in the second island, Poromushir. The statement was made by a Poromushir Ainu, Lipaga, in 1739. This would give us an understanding that the language of all the Kuril islands was more or less the same. The language is considered to belong to Ainu's Hokkaido Northern dialect.

Next table shows river names found in Shumshu Island. Murayama has already transcribed from Russian text to Roman alphabet. I have further modified for possibly a little more common way of writing. (My changes are x to kh and c^ to ch. Other ^ marks on "s" are also omitted.)

River Names in Shumshu Island
River Name
My Remarks
Angasirika"sir"=mountain "ka"=up thereof
Moerput"put"=river mouth
Pitput"pit"=river, "put"=mouth.
Puyapuyaki"puya"=window (?).
Sansanchu"san"=water flow, "chu"=chiw(?)=flow.
Tannemuy"tanne"=long, "muy"=a tool
Chaksut"sut"=foot (of a mountain).

While remarks in above talbe are my own, Murayama points out that the four river names ending with "pit" or "bit" are clearly Ainu origin. And, thus, he negates Kreshninkov's statement that people of Shumshu is not true Kuril (Kreshninkow used "Kuril" to mean Ainu) but Kamchadar.

After 140 years of Kreshninkov's visit to this area, Dybowski visit took place during 1878-1822. Then, a Japanese researcher, TORII Ryuzo, collected Shumshu Ainu dialect from ex-Shumshu people moved to Sikotan Island, in 1889.

Murayama closes Chapter V with this statement.

Page 10: "About Sh. Murayama"
Page 10a:"Study of Ainu Language" by Sh. Murayama
Page 11: Recent Anthropological Findings;Jomon and Ainu relationship
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